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Effects of rTMS on body weight and food intake in obese adults: a randomized controlled study

Participants in the rTMS group had significantly greater weight loss at baseline after 4 rTMS sessions (p = 0.002). Consistent with weight loss, BMI, body fat mass, and VAT were significantly decreased at week 4 in the rTMS group compared to the control group (p <0.05). After 4 rTMS sessions, the TMS group consumed fewer total kilocalories per day than the control group (p < 0.01). rTMS delivered to the left DLPFC was effective in reducing food intake and weight loss in obese patients. The results of this study suggest that rTMS may be an effective treatment option for obesity.

Kim SH, Chung JH, Kim TH, Lim SH, Kim Y, Lee YA, Song SW. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on eating behaviors and body weight in obesity: A randomized controlled study. Brain Stimul. 2018 May-Jun;11(3):528-535. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.11.020. Epub 2017 Dec 1. PMID: 29326022.
Effects of rTMS on resting-state functional connectivity in obese adults

Participants in the real stimulation group had significantly greater weight loss at baseline after 8 rTMS sessions (-2.53 ± 2.41 kg vs. 0.38 ± 1.13 kg, P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that high-frequency rTMS in the left DLPFC orchestrates top-down inhibitory control to reduce food intake. suggest that it may strengthen the frontal lobe network.

Kim SH, Park BY, Byeon K, Park H, Kim Y, Eun YM, Chung JH. The effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on resting-state functional connectivity in obese adults. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Aug;21(8):1956-1966. doi: 10.1111/dom.13763. Epub 2019 Jun 10. PMID: 31050167.
Efficacy of the TMS protocol for the treatment of tinnitus: an integrated analysis of two randomized controlled studies.

All activated rTMS treatments resulted in significant reductions in TQ compared to baseline. No serious side effects were observed with rTMS treatment.

Langguth B, Landgrebe M, Frank E, Schecklmann M, Sand PG, Vielsmeier V, Hajak G, Kleinjung T. Efficacy of different protocols of transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus: Pooled analysis of two randomized controlled studies. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014 May;15(4):276-85. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2012.708438. Epub 2012 Aug 22. PMID: 22909265.
Long-term effects of rTMS in unilateral tinnitus

A significant decrease was observed in all patients when analyzing THI scores and VAS pre-rTMS and 6 months after rTMS. There were no serious complications or hearing deterioration. Daily application of 1-Hz rTMS to the temporalis region is safe and has long-term beneficial effects. The unilaterality of the stimulus is not a determining factor.

Kim HJ, Kim DY, Kim HI, Oh HS, Sim NS, Moon IS. Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in unilateral tinnitus. Laryngoscope. 2014 Sep;124(9):2155-60. doi: 10.1002/lary.24722. Epub 2014 Jun 10. PMID: 24737198.
Improving sleep parameters in patients with EEG-related insomnia through TMS

Results: Significantly reduced EEG abnormalities after TMS. Besides, most sleep parameters showed significant improvement. Conclusion: These data support the notion that TMS is a reliable therapeutic tool for patients with abnormalities associated with neuronal hyperexcitability.

Sánchez-Escandón, O. , Arana-Lechuga, Y. , Terán-Pérez, G. , Ruiz-Chow, Á. , Esqueda-Leon, E. , González-Robles, R. , Shkurovich-Bialik, P. , Collado-Corona, M. and Velázquez-Moctezuma, J. (2014) Transcraneal Magnetic Stimulation Improves Sleep Parameters in Patients Affected with Imsomnia Associated to Electroencephalographic Abnormalities. Neuroscience and Medicine, 5, 72-77. doi: 10.4236/nm.2014.51010.
rTMS in the right parietal cortex for comorbid anxiety disorder and insomnia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been regarded as a promising technique for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. After 10 days of 1 Hz rTMS in the right parietal lobe, both anxiety and insomnia symptoms were significantly improved in the active group.

Huang Z, Li Y, Bianchi MT, Zhan S, Jiang F, Li N, Ding Y, Hou Y, Wang L, Ouyang Q, Wang Y. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right parietal cortex for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study. Brain Stimul. 2018 Sep-Oct;11(5):1103-1109. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.05.016. Epub 2018 May 29. PMID: 29871798.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Migraine Treatment

Transcranial stimulation (TMS) is a diagnostic and therapeutic modality being developed as an acute and prophylactic treatment for migraine. Based on the theory that rTMS alters brain excitability and neurotransmitter activity, rTMS has been studied as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for migraine.

Lipton RB, Pearlman SH. Transcranial magnetic simulation in the treatment of migraine. Neurotherapeutics. 2010;7(2):204-212. doi:10.1016/j.nurt.2010.03.002
Effects of bilateral rTMS on dysphagia after stroke

하이라이트 • 골수 근의 양측 운동 부위에 고주파 rTMS를 적용하면 뇌졸중 후 연하 곤란을 개선하는 데 효과적입니다. • Bilateral rTMS는 unilateral rTMS 및 가짜 자극보다 연하 기능의 더 좋고 빠른 개선을 가져 왔습니다

Eunhee Park, Min Su Kim, Won Hyuk Chang, Su Mi Oh, Yun Kwan Kim, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim, Effects of Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia, Brain Stimulation, Volume 10, Issue 1, 2017, Pages 75-82, ISSN 1935-861X,
Bilateral rTMS Associated with Intensive Swallowing Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Dysphagia: A Case Study

Four stroke patients with dysphagia (age at treatment: 56–80 years, interval between stroke onset and treatment: 24-37 months) were given in-hospital care. For 6 days, each patient received 10 sessions of 3 Hz rTMS bilaterally to the pharyngeal motor cortex followed by intensive swallowing rehabilitation exercises for 20 min. Improvements in the swallowing reflex were seen in all patients in this study.

Momosaki R, Abo M, Kakuda W. Bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic stroke Dysphagia: a case series study. Case Rep Neurol. 2014;6(1):60-67. Published 2014 Mar 20. doi:10.1159/000360936
Preliminary evidence for the effect of radiofrequency rTMS on swallowing function in stroke patients with chronic dysphagia.

Result : Participants who received activated rTMS had improved swallowing function and quality of life related to swallowing at 1 week and 1 month after stimulation. Implication : This study showed that activated rTMS applied to the tongue motor cortex is a viable approach for individuals with dysphagia after chronic stroke. Further investigations in larger sample populations are needed to support the benefits of this stimulation protocol.

Cheng IK, Chan KM, Wong CS, Cheung RT. Preliminary evidence of the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on swallowing functions in post-stroke individuals with chronic dysphagia. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2015 May-Jun;50(3):389-96. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12144. Epub 2015 Jan 14. PMID: 25588767.
Efficacy of High Frequency rTMS 1 Stimulation and 3 Stimulation in Chronic Migraine and Tension Headache

We report the efficacy of 3 sessions versus single sessions of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic migraine (CM) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Follow-up at different time points revealed significant improvements in headache frequency, severity, dysfunction, and number of abortion medications compared to baseline in both groups I and II patients, although these parameters were not different between the two groups.

Kalita J, Laskar S, Bhoi SK, Misra UK. Efficacy of single versus three sessions of high rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic migraine and tension-type headache. J Neurol. 2016 Nov;263(11):2238-2246. doi: 10.1007/s00415-016-8257-2. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27541044.